If you have an abnormal faecal occult blood test (FOBT) or faecal immunochemical test (FIT) result, you will be offered follow-up testing with colonoscopy. For 1–2 out of 20 people with an abnormal FOBT or FIT result, cancer will be found at follow-up colonoscopy. For about 4 out of 10 people with an abnormal FOBT or FIT result, polyps will be found and removed to prevent cancer from developing. About one half of follow-up colonoscopies will have normal results (no cancer or polyps found).

Small polyps found during flexible sigmoidoscopy screening can be removed immediately. People with multiple or large polyps will be offered colonoscopy to remove these and look for additional polyps above the reach of the sigmoidoscope. After multiple or large polyps are found and removed, regular check-ups with colonoscopy are recommended.