Smoked tobacco products. In Europe, manufactured tobacco products for smoking most frequently include cigarettes, cigars, and cigarillos, fine-cut tobacco for hand-rolled cigarettes, and pipe tobacco. Smoking also generates second-hand smoke, the smoke emitted from the burning end of a cigarette or from other tobacco products usually in combination with the smoke exhaled by the smoker. The inhalation of second-hand smoke by non-smokers is considered involuntary smoking.

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Any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or other non-tobacco material; filter-tipped or untipped; also available flavoured; approximately 8 mm in diameter and 70–120 mm in length.
Cigarettes usually contain blended tobaccos of different types. The type of tobacco used in these products influences the composition of the smoke produced. An individual cigarette contains approximately one gram of tobacco and 1 milligram of nicotine. 
Roll-your-own cigarettes
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Individually hand-rolled cigarettes made of fine-cut loose tobacco wrapped in cigarette paper containing less tobacco than commercially manufactured types (approximately between 0.4 and 0.75 grams).

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Any roll of tobacco wrapped in leaf tobacco or in any other substance containing tobacco. There are different types: little cigars, small cigars (cigarillos), regular cigars, premium cigars. Some little cigars are filter-tipped and are shaped like cigarettes.
Pipe tobacco
Source: © Rinek -
A pipe is a device for smoking tobacco that consists of a chamber (the bowl) for the tobacco, connected to the mouthpiece (the bit) by a thin hollow stem (the shank). Pipes are often carefully treated, and loose tobacco for pipe smoking is blended to achieve flavour nuances not available in other tobacco products.
Hookah/water-pipe tobacco
water-pipeSource: © danck -
A water-pipe is commonly used to smoke tobacco that is flavoured or fermented with molasses or other substances. The tobacco is heated by burning coal, and the smoke is cooled by passing through the water and into the hose and mouthpiece, where it is inhaled.

Smokeless tobacco products, by mode of use. Tobacco leaves that are not burned for use can be used through the nose or mouth.


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The tobacco is fire-cured, then fermented and processed into a dry, powdered form, referred to as dry snuff. Dry snuff is packaged and sold in small metal or glass containers. Used very rarely in Europe (used in the United Kingdom), it is inhaled into the nostrils. Powdered dry snuff can also be taken orally.
ORAL Oral use of smokeless tobacco in Europe consists of placing tobacco in the space between the lip or cheek and gum and either chewing or sucking it for a certain period of time. A chaw, which refers to a portion of tobacco the size of a golf ball, is generally chewed, whereas a quid is usually a much smaller portion and is held in the mouth rather than chewed. Newer smokeless tobacco products are used in Scandinavian countries, such as the Swedish snus or Swedish moist snuff, and consist of small pouches containing tobacco (portion-bag snuff). In Sweden, approximately 21% of men use smokeless oral tobacco. However, oral tobacco products are used by less than 2% of the European population overall.
Loose leaf
loose leaf
Source: © Vitalina Rybakova -
Consists of loose cigar tobacco leaves that are air-cured, stemmed, cut or granulated, and loosely packed to form small strips of shredded tobacco. Most brands are sweetened and flavoured with liquorice, and are typically sold in pouches. Loose-leaf tobacco is high in sugar content (approximately 35%). A pinch of tobacco is placed between the cheek and lower lip, typically towards the back of the mouth. It is either chewed or held in place. The saliva is spat out or swallowed.
Moist snuff/Snus
moist snuff
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The tobacco is either air-cured or fire-cured, then processed into fine particles (“fine-cut”) or strips (“long-cut”). Tobacco stems and seeds are not removed. Moist snuff is sold either loose or packaged in small, ready-to-use pouches called packets or sachets. A pinch (called a dip) or a pouch is placed and held between the lip or cheek and gum. The saliva may be swallowed or, more commonly, spat out.
Swedish-type moist snuff (snus) consists of finely ground dry tobacco mixed with aromatic substances, salts (sodium chloride), water, humidifying agents, and chemical buffering agents (sodium carbonate). A pinch (called a dip) is placed between the gum and upper lip. The average user keeps snuff in the mouth for 11–14 hours per day. In Sweden, the portions come in two doses (regular and “mini-portions”) or loose. The European Commission bans the sales of snus in the European Union, with the exception of Sweden.
Betel quid with added tobacco

Source: © N. Guha/IARC
Betel quid is commonly used by minority groups residing in Europe, particularly in the United Kingdom among migrant communities arising from Central, East, South, and South-East Asia. Betel quid with tobacco, commonly known as paan or pan, consists of four main ingredients: (i) betel leaf, (ii) areca nut, (iii) slaked lime, and (iv) tobacco. Tobacco may be used in raw, sun-dried, or roasted form, then finely chopped or powdered and scented or boiled, made into a paste, and scented with rosewater or perfume. The final product (quid) is placed in the mouth and chewed.

Source: Image courtesy of M. Seydioğullari
Maras is a type of smokeless tobacco that is widely used in the south-eastern region of Turkey, especially in the cities of Kahramanmaras and Gaziantep. First, sun-dried tobacco leaves are powdered and mixed with the ash of wood, in particular oak, walnut, or grapevine. Then, water is sprinkled onto the mixture for humidification. A small amount of the mixture is applied between the lower labial mucosa and gingiva for 4–5 minutes. This procedure is repeated many times during the day; some people even sleep with the powder in their mouth.