Formaldehyde Commonly used to embalm and preserve human remains, this chemical is also used for a variety of applications, including use as a disinfectant and for producing other chemicals.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
such as benzo[a]pyrene
These chemicals are products of incomplete combustion and are found in automotive exhaust and tobacco smoke.
Arsenic This element is extremely poisonous to humans and other organisms, which explains why it is used effectively in herbicides and insecticides.
Nickel (compounds) This metallic element is used in stainless steel, magnets, coins, and some alloys. Nickel sulfide fumes (i.e. nickel compounds) are regarded as a known human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the gas nickel carbonyl is very toxic to humans.
Polonium-210 A radioactive element that results from the decay of radon, which is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
Beryllium A lightweight metallic element that is used in the aerospace, aircraft, and nuclear industries. Many industrial waste processes, including municipal waste incineration, release beryllium, although the major emission source is the combustion of coal and fuel oil.
Chromium VI Has a variety of uses, including the production of stainless steel, wood preservation, leather tanning, pigments in dyes, for paints, inks, and plastics, and as anti-corrosion and conversion coatings.
Cadmium This chemical element is used in the manufacture of batteries and paint pigments.
Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine and 4-aminobiphenyl Used to manufacture azo dyes.
1,3-Butadiene Used to produce synthetic rubber.
Benzene An important component of gasoline that is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, explosives, and pesticides.
Vinyl chloride An industrial chemical chiefly used to produce the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Previously used as an inhalation anaesthetic.
Ethylene oxide A key industrial chemical that, although too dangerous for direct household use, is used industrially for making many consumer products, such as detergents, thickeners, solvents, and plastics. A highly flammable and poisonous gas that leaves no residue on the items it contacts, pure ethylene oxide is a disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes.