Screening for prostate cancer has been shown to reduce the risk of dying from the disease, but there are substantial harms and until there is clear evidence to show that an organized screening programme brings substantially more benefit than harm, screening or testing for prostate cancer cannot be recommended in the European Code Against Cancer.

Organized prostate cancer screening programmes do not exist in Europe, but many men are offered prostate cancer testing outside of any programme. As the majority of prostate tumours are not harmful during an average lifespan, detecting them may cause unnecessary anxiety and treatment. Moreover, current treatments carry the risk of unpleasant and distressing side-effects, such as impaired sexual, bladder, and bowel function.