DescriptionCircumstances of exposureTumour sites (or types)
for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) since they are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation.
Dioxins, e.g. dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), and dioxin-like compounds, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are unintentional by-products of various industrial processes.
Human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds occurs as a result of consuming meat, milk, eggs, fish, and related products because dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are persistent in the environment and accumulate in animal fat.
The manufacture and use of some herbicides were important sources of dioxin release into the environment in the past. The restricted manufacture of many of these compounds has substantially reduced their contribution to environmental pollution, but they continue to be released into the environment through incineration/combustion processes (e.g. of some waste materials).
PCB products were widely used in capacitors and transformers and in some building materials in the past; today’s exposure comes from demolition, dysfunction, or uncontrolled recycling of PCB-contaminated structures and equipment.
All cancers combined
(for dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD))